The catalyst

November 14, 2007 at 2:33 am (General)

asiescatalizador.gifThe exhaust gases of the vehiculos are an important source ofcontamination, specially in the great cities, where I number ofVehicles tends to increase day for this reason to day and as itcontributes to the solutions of the problematic one of theenvironmental contamination, denominated devices catalytic, orcataliticos converters have been developed. This element installed inthe escape system, must like function neutralize gases but polluting,the objective of this blog is to describe the same catalyst as if topresent/display the possible causes to them of fault. Description thecatalyst is a device that is placed in the exhaust pipe of the motorsto gasoline His mission is the one to eliminate polluting gases,transformandolos in other nonpolluting gases. Gases of the combustionas result of the combustion within the cylinder of the motor formsNitrogen, Anhydride Carbonic , and steam of the water, mainly,these gases are inoffensive and reach 99% of the total. 1% rest thisformed by injurious gases for the Way Environment, such as Oxidesnitrous, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons without burning. Toxins gases of the combustion Monoxides of Carbon (co): it is a very Toxinand dangerous gas them alive beings. He is colorless and odorless andit is mortal from 300 concentrations superior to pmm (parts by Million )Hydrocarbons nonburned (hc): they must to the rest of fuels withoutburning son very Fragrant. Its Carcinogenic toxicity has effect.Oxides of nitrogens (nox): they are very detrimental forway environment  him since they are main the person in charge of Acid rain. They take place with I oxygenate and the Nitrogen of the air.Components the catalyst in its interior has a monolith or perforatedceramic brick to honeycomb way of bee, the walls of the conduits This waThis one places setting by a very thin layer of of metalsPrecious (Rhodian, platinum and palladium). Hc and the Co reacts withpalladium an oxidation process transforming itself into steam ofWater .los nox in contacts with the radius undergo a process ofReduction transforming into n2 and o2. Types of 2 Catalytic catalystsof Routes: it eliminates the Co and hc. needs excess of I oxygenate towork and it has been used in vehiculos with carburetor. 3 catalysts of routes: it eliminates Co, hc, and nox. A regulation ofthe very precise air/fuel mixture for its correct operation isrequired, reason why it needs Electrical systems fuel management. Catalyst of 3 routes with blower pipe: it eliminates Co, hc, nox. It hasbeen only used in the American vehiculos. One first stage eliminatesnox one second stage like catalyst of 2 routes. Possible causes offaults of a catalyst the Useful life of a catalyst is of approximately80.000km. when a catalytic fault prematurely. it must to the followingcauses: Poisoning by lead the lead contained in the fuel,seriously damages to the catalyst, arriving to use it completely. thelead covers the precious metals that contain the catalyst in theirinterior. The consumption of a complete fuel tank with lead canseriously reduce the effectiveness of the same one. Obstucciones by strange matters: the lack of acceleration and the lostone of benefits of the motor can indicate obstructions in the escapesystem, normally in the catalyst. This type of faults badly takesplace due to Functioning excessive oil consumption or deteriorationof the pipe of the collector. Breakage by impact: an ocular inspection of the catalyst can bring tolight Mechanics  faults in the same one. Extreme Mechanics faults likebreakage by oxidation, asi as impacts can be detected with facility.Any impact in the housing within the zone that occupies the Catalyticsupport, can have damaged the catalyst producing its breakage. Fusion of the monolith: the fusion of the monolith only has its originin an inadequate operation of the feeding of the motor that allows thepassage of the fuel without burning the catalyst. The damage in thecatalyst can go from small a lost one to the total fusion of theceramic monolith.

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